This site deals only with the corporate corruption of science, and makes no inference about the motives or activities of individuals involved.
There are many reasons why individuals become embroiled in corporate corruption activities - from political zealotry to over-enthusiastic activism; from gullibility to greed.
Please read the OVERVIEW carefully, and make up your own mind.
Robert (Bob) Bogle
— Newspaper publisher & president of the NNPA, who helped tobacco fight advertising bans. — The main interest in Bob Bogle is in watching how newspaper publishers collectively do business with industries like tobacco. This only requires the absence of any moral compass — total focus on commercial considerations — and some ability to play one company off against the other.
Some key documents
• Publisher of the Philadelphia Tribune and President of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA).
1982 Jan 27: Canadian newspaper clipping mentions the refusal of a province to curtail cigarette advertising on television, billboard and newspapers (pioneered by Saskatchewan)
Social Services and Community Health Minister Bob Bogle said Tuesday that public education is the key to limiting smoking. [This clipping may have no connection, of course ....]
Saskatchewan is considering banning cigarette advertising but Mr. Bogle said it's debatable whether cigarette ads offset government anti-smoking campaigns,
"It's not an issue where there's straight black and white answers. There's a lot of grey in it.There's some deeply held opinions by those who are for and against the issue."
1990 Mar 30: Philip Morris "Report on Third Party Advocacy" includes a section, Witnesses; Requests to testify [on] Premption/Advertising.
Written Testimony/Statements for the Record
- Tom Watkins, President, National Newspaper Publishers Association.
- Bob Bogle, Publisher - request to testify
- American Newspaper Publishers Assocaition
- National Women's Political Caucus
- National Association of Black Broadcasters.
- Oscar Coffee, Natl Assoc of Black & Minority Chambers of Commerce
- Carlos Carillo, Exec Dir. Hispanic Media Council
1990 May 16: PR head, Guy Smith at Philip Morris complains about the need to maintain the level of minority newspaper advertising:
We have a serious problem. According to the attached letter from Robert Bogle to Hamish Maxwell [PM's CEO] (which HM was not happy to get), we have not lived up to the commitment made by Mr Maxwell to the group of papers Bob Bogle represents. He wants to receive:
- a complete explanation indicating why your organization is not in compliance with Mr Maxwell's commitment to the National Newspaper Publishing Association that each operating company would be involved with the NNPA member newspapers ;
- a full explanation of why Oscar Mayer [a food subsidary of PM] refuses to meet with NNPA representatives;
- the name of the individual in your organization who is assigned responsibility for overseeing this area of our business.
1990 Dec 7: The RJ Reynolds Tobacco Corporate Affairs/Public Relations weekly report to CEO Jim Johnston says:
In Philadelphia, on December 6 the City Council rejected an ordinance amendment that would have banned outdoor cigarette advertising. Local outdoor advertisers, identified through RJR's Public Issues and Media departments, successfully lobbied against the ban.
The Philadelphia lnquirer printed an editorial against the ban on the basis of free-speech, and Bob Bogle, publisher of the Philadelphia NNPA paper, personally lobbied on our behalf.
1991 Jan 16 - 19: Ben Ruffin (RJ Reynolds Tobacco's Corporate Affairs/Minorities Director) attended the NNPA's Mid-Winter Conference in Nassau, Bahamas, along with 225 other freeloading newspaper publishers. His report reveals:
Corporate Affairs representatives attended and participated in the NNPA's Annual Mid-Winter Conference. RJRT sponsored a dinner and Ben Ruffin addressed the NNPA membership, commemorating the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Shortly after they received negative Philadelphia publicity resulting from a "Sexy Butt" contest to promote their menthol cigarettes.
Ben Ruffin praised the NNPA for its friendship, support, and loyalty to RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company.
RJRT's representatives met separately with Bob Bogle, publisher of the Philadelphia Tribune [also local NNPA rep], and two tobacco lobbyists, and came away with several recommendations.
Also discussed were the hearings to be held by the Health Subcommittees of the Philadelphia City Council and the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, and ways in which RJRT and the industry could prepare for these hearings. Strategies, were discussed to address not only the upcoming hearings, but also the means of developing a stronger constituency base within Philadelphia.
1991 Mar 6: Planning document for RJ Reynold Tobacco (RJRT) public relations. They are facing possible hostile hearings on alcohol and smoking on the health of minorities in Philadelphia.
Although there is little that we can do to influence the hearings, we should be doing more to create alliances and relationships that will help us to minimize their inevitable consequence.
- Ben Ruffin should hold a series of meetings with Bob Bogle, publisher of the Philadelphia Tribune.
- RJRT should hire Philadelphia-based black and Hispanic lobbyist/PR consultants.
- We should maintain the support we have from local black publishers — eg, Bob Bogle — by committing to a 1991 schedule of corporate ads that at least matches the 1990 level.
1991 March 14: The PR Division at RJ Reynolds is still worried about the Philadelphia Health Hearings. Surgeon General Antonia Novello, and her predecessor C Everett Koop (both anti-smoking) will both be testifying. They also discuss plans and possible pitfalls:
- John [Singleton] also plans to talk to Bob Bogle about what his editorial position will be on the hearings.
- The local market manager will not sponsor any contests or events that might be construed as being controversial.
- No more event advertising will run that carries our name.
1991 Mar 22: Report by RJ Reynolds Corporate Affairs/Public Relations team to CEO Jim Johnston on "Minority Affairs" presents a rationale for their propaganda activities:
Blacks and Hispanics traditionally link their trial and purchase of products, and their legislative and editorial support, directly to their understanding and belief that a company cares about their communities and issues. They give three recent examples of their work:
- Congressional Hearings Support — Through our relationships, a number of groups are prepared to testify for us in Congress. Tino Duran, President of National Association of Hispanic Publications and an outspoken proponent of our right to advertise in newspapers and magazines, testified last year and is prepared to do so again. Others include:
- National Newspaper Publishers Association
- National Business League
- US Hispanic Chamber of Commerce
- National Real Estate Brokers
- American GI Forum (Hispanic)
- Philadelphia Outdoor Ordinance — At our request, Bob Bogle, publisher of the Philadelphia Tribune [and key man in NNPA], was instrumental in preventing passage of restrictive city billboard ordinance. He also has provided us "early warning" on other situations, and personally deflected criticism on one.
- NNPA Papers Coverage of Youth Initiative — (Discussed with advertising section)
1991 April 18: Internal memo at RJ Reynolds about their successes at recruiting newspaper proprietors to fight ad bans:
Bob Bogle, publisher of the Philadelphia Tribune, ran the speech Jim Johnston [RJR CEO] gave last year at the meeting with the NNPA executive committee as an op-ed piece in his April 2 edition.
Obviously, this is the kind of support that we need to weather the upcoming Philadelphia hearings. I'll be sending him additional information on the public service outdoor campaign and the youth anti-smoking campaign.
1992 Jan 27: RJ Reynolds Corporate Affairs Report lists among its activities: —
We sponsored a dinner at the National Newspaper Publishers Association's Mid-Winter Conference in San Diego that featured a speech by NNPA President Bob Bogle.
1992 Apr 20: Philip Morris's minority advertising agency, Advertising Experti has been reviewing the value of ads in the new publication Philadelphia Tribune Magazine Supplement directed towards African-Americans. They have their doubts about its advertising value but understand the politics and the need for quid pro quo:
One caveat to the above is the political concern around the publisher of the Tribune, Bob Bogle. Mr. Bogle is also the president of the NNPA and has been a strong supporter of Philip Morris Companies Inc. As such, I have placed an ad in the premier issue, which is due out the last week of this month.
1992 Oct 1: RJ Reynolds Tobacco PR staffer Ben Ruffin wrote to his boss Tom Griscom:
Bob Bogle, President of the National Newspaper Publishers Association and Publisher of the Philadelphia Tribune arranged a meeting with [Education] Superintendent Connie Clayton on Wednesday, September 30, to discuss our Youth Nonsmoking Program.
Dr. Clayton was very strong in her support for the program and indicated an interest in instituting it in the school system. [but she wanted the RJR logo taken off some of the literature]
In my follow-up with Bob Bogle late yesterday to inform him that we were
prepared to remove the signage from the two pieces of literature . He informed
me that she was very happy to receive that information and further informed
him that she had already send a note to her staff person indicating her strong
interest in the program with a copy of our small poster and book cover.
1992 Nov 2: Philip Morris internal memo on African American Advertising says:
I am aware of your November 16 meeting with Bob Bogle, President of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA) and would like to give you some background on Corporate Affairs advertising in this area. [They spend $1.8 million in 146 Black newspapers and 9 magazines]
That budget has been cut by $1.1 million [so] the commitment we made to NNPA publishers is not being met. As you might imagine, these publishers, who have historically been good political friends to Philip Morris, are likely to vocalize this reneger.
1993 April 14: The problem of PM USA's domestic advertising budgets has now reached the top at Philip Morris Companies Inc with VP Corporate Affairs, George Knox explaining the problems to the group CEO Michael Miles.
According to these figures, in black newspapers advertising rose from 1988 to 1991, then fell dramatically in 1992. Were it not for the $450 thousand commitment from our (Corporate Affairs) budget in 1993, it would have declined again for the black press.
Begining late in 1992, Bob Bogle first contacted then met with PM USA. Following that meeting, USA [the domestic cigarette company] budgeted for an increase in advertising via the black press and asked us [the overall group] to help out. By mid-January, the combined PM USA/PM Cos commitment had become $2 million. I was told that the KGF/MBC [the food subsidiary] plan for 1993 was $1.4 million.
In an early February meeting, I told Bogle that Philip Morris' aggregated 1993 spending in the Black Press would be $3.4 million, including $2.0 million from USA/Corp. I told him that [the same] again after our mid-March meeting in Washington.
However, events have overtaken us. PM USA is now budgeting $1.19 million vs. the $1.55 necessary to make real the $2.0 million combined pledge from USA/Corp. But, the KGF/MBC figure of $1.71 million is $310 thousand more than the $1.4 million I originally reported to Bogle that they would spend. Net net, we are almost at the $3.4 million promised for 1993 although the distribution is different.
Question #1: Shall we stick with the currently budgeted $3.34 million figure for 1993? Given that you met with them, I think we ought to go above what they were told to expect for this year. I cannot suggest a figure which would both overjoy them and not make us faint.
1993 May: /E Philip Morris was also listing him as an ally in their fight to retain advertising rights. He was seen as a "Potential Spokesperson" (along with the presidents or other advertising and publishing associations)
1993 Dec 10: Karen Daragan [Philip Morris] reports on the company's Sur-Gen Task Force plans to derail or limit the impact of the annual (1994) Surgeon General [Dr Antonia Novello]'s report on Smoking and Health. They knew that it would deal with tobacco advertising and marketing, especially to youth.
Their wish-list includes the use of "Third Parties" [hired academics] to engage in "Your basic Surgeon General bashing... Discredit her."
They had many plans including the use of:
- ACESS was a pseudo-sports organisation focussed on cigarette marketing via car racing — Formula One/Grand Prix Nascar, Indy, Hotrod and speedtrack.
- The Roper omnibus poll was for public release to the press. So by adding some carefully worded questions, they could use the push-poll technique to promote their messages.
- The COURSE Consortium was a group of educators, paid by the tobacco industry to promote their "Tobacco: Helping Youth Say No" program as if it were a genuine attempt to limit youth smoking
- NNPA President Bob Bogle [publisher of Philadelphia Tribune] was to be recruited to help
JS=Josh Slavit, KD=Karen Daragan, JL=Jack Lenzi, BT=Barbara Trach, BM=Brendan McCormick, CD=Christine Donohue, KC=Karen Chalkin]
1994 June 9: Newspaper story "Brewing Company Salutes Black Publishers and Journalists with A Philip Randolph Messenger Awards. "
Millers Brewing Co (a Philip Morris subsidiary) is presenting iits third annual awards during the 54th National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA) Conference.
The NNPA is proud to partner with Miller Brewing Company to honor these achievements." said Bob Bogle, president National Newspaper Publishers Association. The awards program offers a SI0.000 prize package. Each of the newspapers that published a winning article will receive a $l.000 donation to the non-profit organization of its choice.
1997 Mar 18: Ofeld Dukes, the principal of an external public relations company is reporting to RJ Reynolds after a briefing. He points out that the climate in the black community over smoking had changed. Advertising slanted at youth was being attacked, and none more than the Joe Camel campaign. RJR also had created a "special brand" called Uptown aimed at aspirational black communities.
The success of a "Little David" ( Rev Jesse Brown) in Philadelphia against a corporate Goliath possibly results more from the vulnerability, timing, and circumstances of the Uptown brand marketing strategies than the power, mite, credibility and influence of Rev. Brown.
Now, a well-funded "Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids" has "resurrected" Rev. Brown from common obscurity as a hired "human prop" to wage a frontal attack on its declared enemies, the various tobacco companies. The highly publicized failure of Uptown brand marketing strategies (which now possibly haunt RJR Tobacco as a ghost) and the reemergence of Rev Brown by the "Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids" have seemingly had some psychological and social impact on RJR Tobacco's staff. [They have cut advertising of the brands in black media]
[A]t the National Press Club in Washington, on March 13,1997, Rev Brown said: "It is extremely upsetting to see RJ Reynolds target the African American community, and particularly our children, with their products of death. Their decision to sell a new menthol version of Camel cigarettes is unconscionable. As part of a national crusade against ['Joe'] Camel Menthols, we're seeking the total withdrawal of the cigarette brand from store shelves."
The cigarette companies had obviously reacted to these attacks [together with the growing anti-smoking climate] by keeping their heads down ... and therefore not spending so much on advertising ... much to the chagrin of the newspaper proprietors. Ofeld Dukes says:
At the midwinter meeting of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), the trade association for the 210 black newspapers, several editors and publishers expressed concern over what was described as RJR Tobacco's decreased advertising budget for advertising in black newspapers.
[He goes on to discuss strategy and the need to have "soul searching" meetings with NNPA editors and publishers. Also the need for more "creative strategies":
It was suggested that RJR Tobacco be placed on the board's agenda for serious discussion and action at the NNPA board meeting in Washington during Black Press Week, on Friday, March 21 1997. From the perspective of NNPA editors and publishers, a reduced advertising schedule by RJR Tobacco has been a difficult and bitter economic pill to swallow and implies that the company is no longer interested in attracting African Americans who smoke.
As a follow up to my Thursday briefing at RJR Tobacco, I called my good friend Bob Bogle, Publisher, Philadelphia Tribune, to get a more accurate reading of Philadelphia's own 20th Century version of "Little David," Rev. Jesse Brown. Bob was out of town and called back on Monday.
I explained to Bob the nature of my "objective mission" in the one-day briefing of RJR on its Camel Menthol brand and my perplexity in reading the distorted facts in the news release quoting Rev Brown.
Bob was quick in his response. "Rev. Jesse Brown is full of bullshit! And I told him so . He doesn't have an organization, has little respect in this city, and is being paid off to do what's he's doing." Bob said in angry terms.
I mentioned to Bob that I had described Rev Brown as being like a "bunch of
flies" as a picnic. Retorted Bob: "Ofield, you're wrong. He is more like a single fly at a picnic." Bob said he worked with you and RJR in your marketing strategies for the Uptown brand, as you remember, and would be pleased to work with the company in clarifying issues raised by Rev Brown. "Also, I know how to deal with Rev. Brown," Bob said in an emphatic tone.
We both talked about having you to visit with Mrs . Dorothy Leavell, president of NNPA, and other members of the NNPA board during their session in Washington this week,
In advertising in African American publications, the company may want to take advantage of "editorial adjacency," whereby by a publication will offer editorial space commensurate with paid advertising space.
In this way, RJR could use this "free editorial" space for op-ed articles by corporate executives, especially Ben Ruffin, and objectively written feature articles on RJRT's African-American employees who have made significant professional accomplishments and are civically involved. These articles, with photos, would be sent to the NNPA News Service and disseminated to the 210 black newspapers.